What are the Generations Of Computers 2023?

Certainly, I’d be happy to explain the generations of computers to you. Computers have evolved over time through different generations, each marked by significant advancements in technology.

These generations of computers have brought about remarkable progress, with each new generation building upon the advancements of the previous ones. The evolution continues as technology continues to advance, shaping the way we live, work, and interact with the world around us.

Generations of computers

Summary For Generations Of Computers

Generations of Computer    Time-Period         Evolving Hardware              
First Generation1942s – 1955sVacuum Tube Based
Second Generation1955s – 1964sTransistor Based
Third Generation1964s – 1975sIntegrated Circuit Based
Fourth Generation1975s – 1989Microprocessor Based
Fifth Generation1989 -PresentArtificial Intelligence Based

First Generation Computers

The technology behind the primary generation computers was a fragile glass device, which was called a vacuum tube. These computers were very heavy and really large. These weren’t very reliable and programming on them was a tedious task as they used low-level programming language and used no OS. First-generation computers were used for calculation, storage, and control purpose. They were too bulky and large that they needed a full room and consume a lot of electricity.

First generation of computers- vacuum tube
Vacuum Tube

Characteristics of First-Generation Computers

Main electronic componentVacuum tube.
Programming languageMachine language.
Main memoryMagnetic drums.
Speed and sizeVery slow and very large (often taking up an entire room).
Examples of the first generationENIAC, UNIVAC, etc.

Second Generations Of Computers

Second-generation computers used the technology of transistors rather than bulky vacuum tubes. Another feature was the core storage. A transistor may be a device composed of semiconductor material that amplifies a sign or opens or closes a circuit.

Transistors were invented in Bell Labs. The use of transistors made it possible to perform powerfully and with due speed. It reduced the dimensions and price and thankfully the warmth too, which was generated by vacuum tubes. Central Processing Unit (CPU), memory, programming language, and input, and output units also came into the force within the second generation.

2nd generation of computer transistor

Characteristics of Second- Generations Of Computers

Main electronic componentTransistor.
Programming languageMachine language and assembly language.
MemoryMagnetic tape
Input/output devicesMagnetic tape and punched cards.
Power and sizeSmaller in size, had low power consumption, and generated less heat (in comparison with the first-generation computers).

Third Generation Computers

During the third generation, technology envisaged a shift from huge transistors to integrated circuits, also referred to as IC. Here a variety of transistors were placed on silicon chips, called semiconductors. The most feature of this era’s computer was speed and reliability. IC was made from silicon and also called silicon chips.

A single IC has many transistors, registers, and capacitors built on one thin slice of silicon. The value size was reduced and memory space and dealing efficiency were increased during this generation. Programming was now wiped out Higher level languages like BASIC (Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code). Minicomputers find their shape during this era.

Integrated circuit
Integrated circuit

Characteristics of Third-Generation Computers

Main electronic componentIntegrated circuits (ICs).
Programming languageHigh-level language.
MemoryLarge magnetic disk.
Input/output devicesMagnetic tape, monitor, keyboard, printer, etc.

Fourth Generation Computers

In 1971 First microprocessors were used, the large-scale of integration LSI circuits built on one chip called microprocessors. The advantage of this technology is that one microprocessor can contain all the circuits required to perform arithmetic, logic, and control functions on one chip.

The computers using microchips were called microcomputers. This generation provided even smaller size of computers, with larger capacities. That’s not enough, then Very Large Scale Integrated (VLSI) circuits replaced LSI circuits. The Intel 4004 chip, developed in 1971, located all the components of the pc from the central processing unit and memory to input/ output controls on one chip and allowed the dimensions to reduce drastically.

Technologies like multiprocessing, multiprogramming, time-sharing, operating speed, and virtual memory made it a more user-friendly and customary device. The concept of private computers and computer networks came into being within the fourth generation.


Characteristics of Fourth- Generations of Computers

Main electronic componentVery-large-scale integration (VLSI) and the microprocessor (VLSI has thousands of transistors on a single microchip).
Memorysemiconductor memory (such as RAM, ROM, etc.).
Input/output devicespointing devices, optical scanning, keyboard, monitor, printer, etc.
Examples of the fourth generationApple Macintosh, Alter 8800, etc.

Fifth-Generations of Computers

The technology behind the fifth generation of computers is AI. It allows computers to behave like humans. It is often seen in programs like voice recognition, area of medicine, and entertainment. Within the field of game playing also it’s shown remarkable performance where computers are capable of beating human competitors.

The speed is the highest, size is the smallest and area of use has remarkably increased within the fifth generation computers. Though not a hundred percent AI has been achieved to date but keeping in sight the present developments, it is often said that this dream also will become a reality very soon.

artificial Intelligence

Characteristics of Fifth-Generation Computers

Main electronic componentBased on artificial intelligence, uses the Ultra Large-Scale Integration (ULSI) technology and parallel processing method (ULSI has millions of transistors on a single microchip and the Parallel processing method use two or more microprocessors to run tasks simultaneously).
LanguageUnderstand natural language (human language).
SizePortable and small in size.
Input/output deviceTrackpad (or touchpad), touchscreen, pen, speech input (recognise voice/speech), light scanner, printer, keyboard, monitor, mouse, etc.
Example of the fifth generationDesktops, laptops, tablets, smartphones, etc.

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